Pleural Effusion

What is Pleural Effusion?“PLEURAL EFFUSION IS FLUID COLLECTION OUTSIDE THE LUNGS DUE TO DISEASE. IT NEEDS URGENT EVALUATION FOR FURTHER DIAGNOSIS AND PROPER TREATMENT.” Pleural effusion is a collection of excess fluid in the space between the two layers of pleura. This can compress the lung and may cause shortness of breath. A pleural effusion is usually the result of damage to the pleural membrane and may be due to many disease processes – your doctor will discuss the specific cause of your effusion with you. Treatment involves draining the excess fluid from the pleural space via a needle or a thin chest drain/tube which is inserted through the chest wall into the space between the two layers of pleura. This enables the excess fluid to drain and usually stays in place until
the fluid has drained and the lung has re- expanded. (This is decided by chest x-ray or sometimes a scan is needed).
What is the cause of the pleural effusion?
Pleural effusions will be commonly caused due to:

1. Lung …

What is Bronchoscopy Testing

" Bronchoscopy is a quick out patient procedure and helps safe fast evaluation of the problems and severity. It is usually safe and painless in qualified hands..." It is a procedure to pass a light tip tube ( bronchoscope) to visualise abnormality in the lungs / bronchi. It is to identify problems in the lung. usually it is done to looks at cancers / tuberculosis and other lung problems not picked up on the CT-SCAN / X-RAY. It is used to confirm the nature of infection by appropriate further tests which have a good accuracy in giving final confirmation to the doctors suspicion. This will enable you to receive a diagnosis and management plan at your appointment. 

Fig. Bronchoscope.

Why do I need a bronchoscopy?

Some of the common reasons why bronchoscopies are done include:

I) Infection : Specific samples from your lungs can help your doctor to find the causes of infections and give you appropriate treatment. Your doctor can also use the bronchoscope to clear some of the mucus fro…



"A pulmonary embolism (embolus) is a serious, potentially life-threatening condition. It is due to a blockage in a blood vessel in the lungs. A Pulmonary embolism (PE) can cause symptoms such as chest pain or breathlessness but may have no symptoms and be hard to detect. A massive PE can cause collapse and death. PE usually happens due to an underlying blood clot in the leg - deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Prompt treatment is important and can be life-saving. Pregnancy, various medical conditions and medicines, immobility and major surgery all increase the risk of a PE. Anticoagulation, initially with heparin and then warfarin, is the usual treatment for PE. "

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is part of a group of problems together known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous means related to veins. A thrombosis is a blockage of a blood vessel by a blood clot (a thrombus). An embolism occurs when part or all of the thrombus dislodges from where it formed and t…

The Need of Oxygen Therapy

"Give Your Body The Oxygen It Requires Through Oxygen Therapy" "Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions can prevent you from getting enough oxygen"

What is Oxygen Therapy?

- Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions can prevent you from getting enough oxygen such as interstitial lung disease or Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 
- The oxygen comes through nasal prongs, a mask, or a breathing tube. If you have a chronic problem, you may need a portable oxygen tank (cylinder) or a machine (oxygen concentrator) in your home.
- Oxygen therapy is not a replacement for any medication, nor should any of the medicines be stopped out of hopelessness and disbelief. …

Information In Detail Of Pneumothorax

What is Pneumothorax ? Pneumothorax is a condition arising as a complication of diseases of lung / trauma / procedure related. Rarely, it will also be seen due to the unknown conditions. It almost always qualifies for complete resolution via high flow oxygen / pleural tapping/ intercostal drainage tube / pleurodesis / thoracoscopy. Rare condition include medical emergency called Tension Pneumothorax.

Pneumothorax is a collection of air in between the chest wall and the lung under the ribs. This is a potentially serious condition that may need urgent opinion with a Chest Specialist
There is a potential for occurrence on both sides and also likelihood of recurrence. A simple single event of Pneumothorax after trauma may be exception not needing aggressive management. But all cases need at least basic evaluation. 

What causes Pneumothorax ? 

It is caused by the accumulation of air outside the lungs in the chest. The problem arises due to the compression of the adjacent lung and the reduced ox…